Information comes in discreet “packages” called bits. A single bit represents a “yes” or “no” answer. The assimilation of many bits together into a larger whole is the act of encoding many “yes or no” choices into a single structure. When the brain learns to read, it must actively go through the entire alphabet to determine which of the letters the first represents. To identify a single letter thus requires 26 bits. The speed a consciousness can process a series of options is known as processing speed.
The human brain can retrieve frequently accessed information more quickly over time because it starts associating individual “yes” or “no” options with each other to form a single large “yes” or “no” it can process more quickly. When you read these words you are reading not by letters but by the words themselves as the basic units of information. At times you may even read by phrases, if you are reading sentence structures with which you are familiar. At the most basic level, the brain processes by calculating series after series of binary answers in a relatively short amount of time.
The Senses perceive through the physical medium of the nervous system. Neurons record through chemical processes a plethora of different types of stimuli, with gradations based entirely on long series of binary questions. The information is encoded in a chemical current (the alternation of sodium and calcium gradients) which passes up and through the spinal column to the brain.
Once there the brain interprets (de-codes) the series of “yes”/“no” decisions recorded by the neuron. The information passed along to the brain is called a percept, i.e., the bits of information that describe the stimulus in question. It is this percept that the mind processes and present to the consciousness of which it is a part. Consciousness (also called awareness) is itself is the product of multiple feeds of information processed by mental neurons and assimilated into a picture of reality. All feeling, knowledge, emotion, and memory is known through sensation provided by the nervous system. Without the Senses, man would be unaware he exists. Prior to the pre-natal development of his senses, man has no awareness.
Because Consciousness is based on the sensory data received, to deny their reliability is to deny one’s own awareness. As has been mentioned before, denying Consciousness or Awareness is impossible because to utter such a statement one must be Conscious.
When the mind chooses to focus on a series of percepts it can further process these and integrate them into concepts, the base unit of rational thought. A concept is a thought, an idea, an assertion, the sum total of a series of integrated binary questions.
Concepts can further be integrated together to form whole philosophies through reason. By taking individual concepts the mind can evaluate them against each other so as to produce non-contradictory conclusions. Logic is the art of integrating concepts into non-contradictory conclusions.
To summarize: Three Principles are undeniable. Existence, Identity, and Consciousness are employed every by the unaware neurons that transmit information to the human brain. To distrust any of the First Principles or the basic means by which data are analyzed is to compromise one’s own ability to speak. The only way to avoid self-refutation is to accept the Principles as axiomatic and move on to other issues of thought and Reason.